# Type Families in Haskell: The Definitive Guide

April 20th, 2021

Type families are one of the most powerful type-level programming features in Haskell. You can think of them as type-level functions, but that doesn’t really cover the whole picture. By the end of this article, you will know what they are exactly and how to use them.

We will talk about the following topics:

## Type constructor flavours

In Haskell, there are several categories to which a given type constructor T may belong:

• data T a b = ... -- data type
• newtype T a b = ... -- newtype
• class T a b where ... -- type class
• type T a b = ... -- type synonym

The TypeFamilies extension introduces two more categories:

• type family T a b where ... -- type family
• data family T a b = ... -- data family

Type families are further subdivided into closed and open, and open type families can be either top-level or associated with a class:

 Type families Top-level Associated Open ✔️ ✔️ Closed ✔️ ❌

Data families are always open, but can also be either top-level or associated:

 Data families Top-level Associated Open ✔️ ✔️ Closed ❌ ❌

Even though the sheer variety of these type constructor flavours may be overwhelming at first, there are valid use cases for each, and there are common principles that underpin them all.

Let us first talk about closed type families because of their similarity to another well-known concept: functions.

## Closed type families

At the term level, when we need to perform a computation, we define functions. Here is, for example, list concatenation:

append :: forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a]    -- type signature
append []     ys = ys                    -- clause 1
append (x:xs) ys = x : append xs ys      -- clause 2


At the type level, we define such computations using closed type families:

type Append :: forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a]  -- kind signature
type family Append xs ys where              -- header
Append '[]    ys = ys                     -- clause 1
Append (x:xs) ys = x : Append xs ys       -- clause 2


And here’s a GHCi session to demonstrate how we can use both of these:

ghci> append [1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]
[1,2,3,4,5,6]
ghci> :kind! Append [1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]
Append [1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6] :: [Nat]
= '[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]


While there is a striking similarity between these two definitions, there are also some differences:

• As with other type constructors, the name of a type family must start with an uppercase letter, hence Append instead of append.
• Instead of a type signature, we use a standalone kind signature, which must be prefixed with the type keyword (enabled by the StandaloneKindSignatures extension).
• The nil constructor [] is written as '[] to distinguish it from the list type constructor []. This quirk is due to the way DataKinds works and is not related to type families per se.
• The clauses of a type family are grouped under the type family header, whereas term-level functions do not have headers.

The header is probably the most notable difference here, and to understand its importance we must first discuss the notion of arity. Just before we do that, here are a few more examples of closed type families to get accustomed to the syntax:

Term-level function Closed type family
not :: Bool -> Bool
not True = False
not False = True

type Not :: Bool -> Bool
type family Not a where
Not True = False
Not False = True

fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a
fromMaybe d Nothing = d
fromMaybe _ (Just x) = x

type FromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a
type family FromMaybe d x where
FromMaybe d Nothing = d
FromMaybe _ (Just x) = x

fst :: (a, b) -> a
fst (x, _) = x

type Fst :: (a, b) -> a
type family Fst t where
Fst '(x, _) = x


Exercise: apply these type families to various inputs in GHCi using the :kind! command and compare the output to your expectation.

## Type constructor arity

The arity of a type constructor is the number of arguments it requires at use sites. It comes into play when we use higher-kinded types:

type S :: (Type -> Type) -> Type
data S k = MkS (k Bool) (k Integer)


Now, what constitutes a valid argument to S? One might be tempted to think that any type constructor of kind Type -> Type could be used there. Let’s try a few:

• MkS (Just True) Nothing :: S Maybe
• MkS (Left “Hi”) (Right 42) :: S (Either String)
• MkS (Identity False) (Identity 0) :: S Identity

So Maybe, Either String, and Identity have all worked fine. But what about a type synonym?

type Pair :: Type -> Type
type Pair a = (a, a)


From the standalone kind signature, we see that it has the appropriate kind Type -> Type. GHCi also confirms this:

ghci> :kind Pair
Pair :: Type -> Type


And yet, any attempt to use S Pair is unsuccessful:

ghci> MkS (True, False) (0, 1) :: S Pair
<interactive>:6:29: error:
• The type synonym 'Pair' should have 1 argument,
but has been given none


Due to certain design decisions in GHC’s type system, type synonyms cannot be partially applied. In the case of Pair, we say that its arity is 1, as it needs one argument: Pair Bool, Pair Integer, and Pair String are all fine. On the other hand, S Pair or Functor Pair are not. The use of a type constructor where its arity requirements are met is called saturated, and unsaturated otherwise.

Note that we only need the notion of arity for type constructors that can reduce to other types when applied to an argument. For instance, Pair Bool is equal not only to itself but also to (Bool, Bool):

• Pair Bool ~ Pair Bool -- reflexivity
• Pair Bool ~ (Bool, Bool) -- reduction

On the other hand, Maybe Bool is only equal to itself:

• Maybe Bool ~ Maybe Bool -- reflexivity

We thus call Maybe a generative type constructor, while Pair is non-generative.

Non-generative type constructors have arities assigned to them and must be used saturated. Generative type constructors are not subject to such restrictions, so we do not apply the notion of arity to them.

Type family applications can also reduce to other types:

• Append [1,2] [3,4] ~ Append [1,2] [3,4] -- reflexivity
• Append [1,2] [3,4] ~ [1, 2, 3, 4] -- reduction

Therefore, they are non-generative and have arities assigned to them. The arity is determined at definition site by taking into account the kind signature and the header:

type Append :: forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a]
type family Append xs ys where


In the header, we have Append xs ys rather than Append xs or simply Append. So, at first glance it may seem that the arity of Append is 2. However, we must also account for the forall-bound variable a. In fact, even if you write Append [1,2] [3,4], internally it becomes Append @Nat [1,2] [3,4]. Hence the arity of Append is 3.

That would also be true even if we didn’t write out the forall explicitly:

type Append :: [a] -> [a] -> [a]
type family Append xs ys where


OK, so why is a header important? Couldn’t we deduce the arity by counting the quantifiers in the kind signature? Well, that might work in most cases, but here’s an interesting counter-example:

type MaybeIf :: Bool -> Type -> Type
type family MaybeIf b t where
MaybeIf True  t = Maybe t
MaybeIf False t = Identity t


This definition is assigned the arity of 2, and we can use it by applying it to two arguments:

data PlayerInfo b =
MkPlayerInfo { name  :: MaybeIf b String,
score :: MaybeIf b Integer }


This could be useful when working with a database. When reading a player record, we would expect all fields to be present, but a database update could touch only some of the fields:

dbReadPlayerInfo :: IO (PlayerInfo False)
dbUpdatePlayerInfo :: PlayerInfo True -> IO ()


In PlayerInfo False the fields are simply wrapped in Identity, e.g. MkPlayerInfo { name = Identity "Jack", score = Identity 8 }. In PlayerInfo True the fields are wrapped in Maybe and therefore can be Nothing, e.g. MkPlayerInfo { name = Nothing, score = Just 10 }.

However, MaybeIf cannot be passed to S:

ghci> newtype AuxInfo b = MkAuxInfo (S (MaybeIf b))
<interactive>:33:21: error:
• The type family 'MaybeIf' should have 2 arguments,
but has been given 1
• In the definition of data constructor 'MkAuxInfo'
In the newtype declaration for 'AuxInfo'


Fortunately, this problem is solved by a minor adjustment to the definition of MaybeIf:

type MaybeIf :: Bool -> Type -> Type
type family MaybeIf b where
MaybeIf True  = Maybe
MaybeIf False = Identity


Notice how the kind signature is unchanged, but the t parameter is removed from the header and the clauses. With this tweak, the arity of MaybeIf becomes 1 and the definition of AuxInfo is accepted.

Exercise: determine the arity of Not, FromMaybe, and Fst.

The need for closed type families arises most often when working with GADTs. Here is a definition of heterogeneous lists:

type HList :: [Type] -> Type
data HList xs where
HNil :: HList '[]
(:&) :: x -> HList xs -> HList (x : xs)
infixr 5 :&


It can be used to represent sequences of values of different types:

h1 :: HList [Integer, String, Bool]
h1 = 42 :& "Hello" :& True :& HNil

h2 :: HList [Char, Bool]
h2 = 'x' :& False :& HNil


Just as with normal lists, we can define operations such as computing the length:

hlength :: HList xs -> Int
hlength HNil = 0
hlength (_ :& xs) = 1 + hlength xs

ghci> hlength h1
3

ghci> hlength h2
2


However, even for something as trivial as concatenation we need type-level computation:

happend :: HList xs -> HList ys -> HList ??


What shall be the type of happened h1 h2? Well, it must include the elements of the first list and then the elements of the second. That is precisely what the Append type family implements:

happend :: HList xs -> HList ys -> HList (Append xs ys)


And that is the typical reason one would reach for closed type families: to implement operations on GADTs.

## Evaluation order, or lack thereof

Haskell is a lazy language, and its evaluation strategy enables us to write code such as the following:

ghci> take 10 (iterate (+5) 0)
[0,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45]


Let us now attempt a similar feat at the type level. First, we define type families that correspond to take and iterate (+5):

type IteratePlus5 :: Nat -> [Nat]
type family IteratePlus5 k where
IteratePlus5 k = k : IteratePlus5 (k+5)

type Take :: Nat -> [a] -> [a]
type family Take n a where
Take 0 xs = '[]
Take n (x : xs) = x : Take (n-1) xs


We can see that Take works as expected:

ghci> :kind! Take 3 [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
Take 3 [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5] :: [Nat]
= '[0, 1, 2]


On the other hand, IteratePlus5 sends the type checker into an infinite loop:

ghci> :kind! Take 10 (IteratePlus5 0)
^CInterrupted.


Clearly, the evaluation of type families is not lazy. In fact, it is not eager either – the rules are not defined at all. Even when working with finite data, reasoning about time or space complexity of algorithms implemented as type families is impossible. #18965 is a GHC issue that offers a solution to this problem. In the meantime, it is a pitfall one must be aware of.

## Open type families

Let’s say we want to assign a textual label to some types, possibly for serialization purposes:

type Label :: Type -> Symbol
type family Label t where
Label Double = "number"
Label String = "string"
Label Bool   = "boolean"
...


We can reify the label at the term level using the KnownSymbol class:

label :: forall t. KnownSymbol (Label t) => String
label = symbolVal (Proxy @(Label t))

ghci> label @Double
"number"


But what if the user defines their own type MyType in another module? How could they assign a label to it, such that label @MyType = "mt"?

With closed type families, this is not possible. That is where open type families enter the picture. To make a type family open, we must omit the where keyword in its header:

type Label :: Type -> Symbol
type family Label t


The instances are no longer indented. Instead, they are declared at the top level, possibly in different modules, and prefixed with the type instance keyword sequence:

type instance Label Double = "number"
type instance Label String = "string"
type instance Label Bool   = "boolean"


Now a user can easily define an instance of Label for their own type:

data MyType = MT
type instance Label MyType = "mt"

ghci> label @MyType
"mt"


At this point, one might start wondering why anybody would ever prefer closed type families if open type families seem to be more powerful and extensible. The reason for this is that extensibility comes at a cost: the equations of an open type family are not allowed to overlap. But overlapping equations are often useful!

## Overlapping equations

The clauses of a closed type family are ordered and matched from top to bottom. This allows us to define logical conjunction as follows:

type And :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
type family And a b where
And True True = True
And _    _    = False


If we were to reorder them, the And _ _ equation would match all inputs. But it comes second, so the And True True clause gets a chance to match. This is the key property of closed type families as opposed to open type families: the equations may be overlapping.

An open type family would need to enumerate all possibilities, leading to a combinatorial explosion:

type And' :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
type family And' a b

type instance And' True  True  = True
type instance And' True  False = False
type instance And' False True  = False
type instance And' False False = False


## Compatible equations

To say that overlapping equations are disallowed in open type families and allowed in closed type families would be an oversimplification. In practice, the rules are a bit more intricate.

Open type family instances must be compatible. Type family instances are compatible if at least one of the following holds:

1. Their left-hand sides are apart (i.e. not overlapping)
2. Their left-hand sides unify with a substitution, under which the right-hand sides are equal.

The second condition enables GHC to accept more programs. Consider the following example:

type family F a
type instance F a    = [a]
type instance F Char = String


While the left-hand sides clearly overlap (a is more general than Char), ultimately it makes no difference. If the user needs to reduce F Char, both equations will result in [Char]. The mathematically inclined readers will recognize this property as confluence.

Here’s a more interesting example with several type variables:

type family G a b
type instance G a    Bool = a -> Bool
type instance G Char b    = Char -> b


The left-hand sides unify with a substitution a=Char, b=Bool. The right-hand sides are equal under that substitution:

type instance G Char Bool = Char -> Bool


It is therefore safe to accept both of them: they are compatible.

Instance compatibility also plays a role in closed type families. Consider FInteger and FString:

type family FInteger a where
FInteger Char = Integer
FInteger a    = [a]

type family FString a where
FString Char = String
FString a    = [a]


Now, for an unknown x, could GHC reduce FInteger x to [x]? No, because the equations are matched top-to-bottom, and GHC first needs to check whether x is Char, in which case it would reduce to Integer.

On the other hand, the equations in FString are compatible. So if we have FString x, it doesn’t matter whether x is Char or not, as both equations will reduce to [x].

## Injective type families

Some type families are injective: that is, we can deduce their inputs from their outputs. For example, consider boolean negation:

type Not :: Bool -> Bool
type family Not x where
Not True = False
Not False = True


If we know that Not x is True, then we can conclude that x is False. By default, the compiler does not apply such reasoning:

s :: forall x. (Not x ~ True, Typeable x) => String
s = show (typeRep @x)

ghci> s
<interactive>:7:1: error:
• Couldn't match type 'Not x0' with ''True'
arising from a use of 's'
The type variable 'x0' is ambiguous


Even though the compiler could instantiate x to False based on the fact that Not x is True, it did not. Of course, we could do it manually, and GHC would check that we did it correctly:

ghci> s @False
"'False"

ghci> s @True
<interactive>:12:1: error:
• Couldn't match type ''False' with ''True'
arising from a use of 's'


When we instantiate x to False, the Not x ~ True constraint is satisfied. When we attempt to instantiate it to True, the constrained is not satisfied and we see a type error.

There’s only one valid way to instantiate x. Wouldn’t it be great if GHC could do it automatically? That’s exactly what injective type families allow us to achieve. Change the type family header of Not as follows:

type family Not x = r | r -> x where


First, we give a name to the result of Not x, here I called it r. Then, using the syntax of functional dependencies, we specify that r determines x. GHC will make use of this information whenever it needs to instantiate x:

ghci> s
"'False"


This feature is enabled by the TypeFamilyDependencies extension. As with ordinary functional dependencies, it is only used to guide type inference and cannot be used to produce equalities. So the following is, unfortunately, rejected:

not_lemma :: Not x :~: True -> x :~: False
not_lemma Refl = Refl
-- Could not deduce: x ~ 'False
-- from the context: 'True ~ Not x


That is a known limitation.

## Associated types

From a code organization perspective, sometimes it makes sense to associate an open type family with a class.

Consider the notion of containers and elements:

type family Elem a
class Container a where
elements :: a -> [Elem a]

type instance Elem [a] = a
instance Container [a] where
elements = id

type instance Elem ByteString = Word8
instance Container ByteString where
elements = ByteString.unpack


We would only use Elem with types that also have a Container instance, so it would be more clear to move it into the class. That is exactly what associated types enable us to do:

class Container a where
type Elem a
elements :: a -> [Elem a]

instance Container [a] where
type Elem [a] = a
elements = id

instance Container ByteString where
type Elem ByteString = Word8
elements = ByteString.unpack


Associated types are mostly equivalent to open type families, and which one to prefer is often a matter of style.

One advantage of associated types is that they can have defaults:

type family Unwrap x where
Unwrap (f a) = a

class Container a where
type Elem a
type Elem x = Unwrap x
elements :: a -> [Elem a]


This way, we can avoid explicit definition of Elem in most instances:

instance Container [a] where
elements = id

instance Container (Maybe a) where
elements = maybeToList

instance Container ByteString where
type Elem ByteString = Word8
elements = ByteString.unpack


Current research indicates that associated types are a more promising abstraction mechanism than top-level open type families. See ICFP 2017 – Constrained Type Families.

## Data families

Data families can be thought of as type families, instances of which are always new, dedicated data types.

Consider the following example:

data family Vector a
newtype instance Vector () = VUnit Int
newtype instance Vector Word8 = VBytes ByteArray
data instance Vector (a, b) = VPair !(Vector a) !(Vector b)


A Vector is a sequence of elements, but for the unit type we can simply store the length as Int, which is way more efficient than allocating memory for each unit value.

Notice how we can decide between data and newtype on a per-instance basis.

This example can be rewritten using type families as follows:

type family VectorF a

type instance VectorF () = VectorUnit
data VectorUnit = VUnit Int

type instance VectorF Word8 = VectorWord8
data VectorWord8 = VBytes ByteArray

type instance VectorF (a, b) = VectorPair a b
data VectorPair a b = VPair (VectorF a) (VectorF b)


In this translation, there’s a data type for every type family instance. However, even boilerplate aside, this is an imperfect translation. Data families offer us something else: the type constructor they introduce is generative, so we do not have to worry about its arity!

For example, the following code is valid:

data Pair1 f x = P1 (f x) (f x)
type VV = Pair1 Vector


On the other hand, Pair1 VectorF would be rejected, as this is not applied to its argument.

Data families can also be associated with a class:

class Vectorizable a where
data Vector a
vlength :: Vector a -> Int


Just as with associated types and open type families, this is mostly a matter of code organization.

## Non-parametric quantification

In terms, forall is a parametric quantifier, and this fact can be used to reason about functions. For example, consider the type signature of the identity function:

id :: forall a. a -> a


There’s just one thing it can do with its argument: return it untouched. It could not, say, return 42 when given an integer:

id :: forall a. a -> a
id (x :: Int) = 42      -- Rejected!
id x = x


This is not only important for reasoning about code, but also to guarantee type erasure.

However, none of that applies to type families, which have their own interpretation of what forall is supposed to mean:

type F :: forall a. a -> a
type family F a where
F (a :: Nat) = 42
F a = a


This code is accepted and works without error:

ghci> :kind! F 0
F 0 :: Nat
= 42

ghci> :kind! F "Hello"
F "Hello" :: Symbol
= "Hello"


On the one hand, this hinders our ability to reason about type families. On the other hand, this basically amounts to Π-types at the kind level, so it can be put to good use.

## Non-linear patterns

In term-level functions, a variable can’t be bound more than once:

dedup (x : x : xs) = dedup (x : xs)   -- Rejected!
dedup (y : xs) = y : dedup xs
dedup [] = []


If we want to check that two inputs are equal, we must do so explicitly with the == operator:

dedup (x1 : x2 : xs) | x1==x2 = dedup (x1 : xs)
dedup (y : xs) = y : dedup xs
dedup [] = []


On the other hand, in type family instances the former style is also allowed:

type family Dedup xs where
Dedup (x : x : xs) = Dedup (x : xs)
Dedup (y : xs) = y : Dedup xs
Dedup '[] = '[]


The feature happens to be called non-linear patterns, but do not confuse it with linear types, which are not related.

## Conclusion

Type families are a powerful and widely used (20% of Hackage packages) feature. They were introduced in 2005 in the form of associated type synonyms, and remain a subject of active research to this day, with innovations such as closed type families (2013), injective type families (2015), and constrained type families (2017).

While a useful tool, type families must be used with great care due to open issues such as #8095 (“TypeFamilies painfully slow”) and #12088 (“Type/data family instances in kind checking”). However, there are ongoing efforts to address these issues. Serokell’s GHC department is committed to improving Haskell’s facilities for type-level programming.

Let us know if you use type families and what you think of them!

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