How Dependent Haskell Can Improve Industry Projects

Danya RogozinVladislav Zavialov
September 7th, 2021
24 min read

Dependent types are a hot topic in the Haskell community. Many voices advocate for adding dependent types to Haskell, and a lot of effort is being invested towards that end. At the same time, the sceptics raise various concerns, one being that dependent types are more of a research project than a tool applicable in industrial software development.

That is, however, a false dichotomy. While dependent types are still a subject of active research, we already have a good enough understanding of them to see how to apply them in real-world situations and reap immediate benefits.

In this post, we show that Dependent Haskell can be used to simplify and improve the code in a large production codebase. The subject of our case study is Morley: an implementation of the smart contract language of the Tezos blockchain.

Getting started with Dependent Haskell

Dependent types are a broad concept. If you take a close look at the existing dependently typed languages, such as Agda, Coq, and Idris, you will find that their type systems all have certain unique characteristics. In that regard, Haskell is also about to get its own flavour of dependent types, designed to fit as well as possible with the rest of the language, rather than blindly imitate prior work.

Most of the theory has been developed in Adam Gundry’s “Type Inference, Haskell and Dependent Types” and then Richard Eisenberg’s “Dependent Types in Haskell: Theory and Practice”. The reader is encouraged to get acquainted with these bodies of work, especially the latter (since it’s more recent).

As a more casual reading, there is the GHC GitLab Wiki Page on the topic and GHC Proposal #378. While not as extensive, these resources provide a solid starting point for learning about the proposed design of Dependent Haskell.

Finally, for the sake of completeness, we shall now recap the most important concepts here: quantifiers, dependence, visibility, and erasure.

Quantifiers and their attributes

When we say “quantifier”, we mean the part of a type that corresponds to a place in a term where you could, if you wanted, introduce a variable (source: comment 775422563). As usual, the definition alone is rather hard to grasp, so let’s make things concrete with a couple of examples.

Consider the lambda abstraction \a -> a == 0. The corresponding type is Int -> Bool. We can split both of these as follows:

Binder Body
Type Int -> Bool
Term \a -> a == 0

The part of the type corresponding to the term-level binder is Int -> ..., so that’s the quantifier.

Note that the lambda abstraction may be obscured by other language features, such as pattern matching. For example:

f :: Int -> Bool
f 0 = True
f _ = False

Even though there’s no explicit lambda abstraction or variable here, we still call the Int -> ... part of the type a quantifier. For this discussion, we look at terms through the lens of their desugaring. The above code snippet is really equivalent to:

f :: Int -> Bool
f = \a -> case a of
  0 -> True
  _ -> False

And now the lambda abstraction is explicit. Read our article about Haskell desugaring to learn more about this transformation.

Another example of a quantifier is ctx => ..., which introduces a class constraint. If you are not familiar with dictionary passing, then it might not be apparent how constraints are related to variables and quantification. And what makes it tricky is that we can’t do a transformation to make this apparent in surface Haskell, we need to look at the internal language of GHC called Core. Fortunately, this is also covered by the aforementioned article about desugaring.

In short, a constrained function of type Num a => a -> a is equivalent to a function of type NumDict a -> a -> a, where NumDict is a record containing implementations of numeric methods such as (+), (*), negate, and so on.

That’s also where the concept of visibility comes into play. We call a -> a visible quantifier because at the term level, both abstraction and application are explicit. On the other hand, ctx => ... is an invisible quantifier, as the term-level class method dictionaries are hidden from the programmer.

In Haskell, as specified by the Haskell 2010 Report, these are the only two quantifiers. However, with the ExplicitForAll extension, we get another one: forall a. ... . Just as the double arrow, forall is an invisible quantifier, so it may be hard to see why it’s a quantifier at all (and it is also covered by the article on desugaring). However, with the TypeApplications extension, you can override the visibility at use sites. Instead of writing map (>0), one can write map @Int @Bool (>0). The three inputs correspond to the first three quantifiers in the type of map.

map ::
  forall a.     -- e.g. @Int
  forall b.     -- e.g. @Bool
  (a -> b) ->   -- e.g. (>0)
  ([a] -> [b])

This leaves us with three quantifiers in today’s Haskell, which are either visible or invisible:

a -> ... visible
ctx => ... invisible
forall a. ... invisible (but can be used visibly with TypeApplications)

Visibility, however, is not the only attribute we care about. Another one is erasure. We call a quantifier retained (as opposed to erased) if it is possible to pattern match on the variable it introduces.

For example, the following code is not valid:

evil_id :: forall a. a -> a
evil_id x =
  case a of   -- Nope!
    Int -> 42
    _ -> x

In the above code snippet, the idea is that evil_id would behave mostly as id, but return 42 when applied to an Int. That is not possible, though, as the type variable a is not available for case analysis. We, therefore, call forall an erased quantifier. Since erased arguments cannot be subjected to case analysis, they never affect which code branch is taken.

Erased arguments are not passed at runtime.

Also, since class method dictionaries are passed at runtime, we say that ctx => ... is a retained quantifier. Naturally, the data contained in the dictionary is available for case analysis.

For example, evil_id can be implemented by utilising the Typeable class:

import Type.Reflection
import Data.Type.Equality

evil_id :: forall a. Typeable a => a -> a
evil_id x =
  case testEquality (typeRep @a) (typeRep @Int) of
    Just Refl -> 42
    Nothing -> x

Finally, let us discuss dependence. A quantifier is considered dependent if the variable it introduces can be mentioned in the rest of the type.

For example, ordinary functions are not dependent:

f :: Bool -> ...  -- x cannot be used here
f = \x  -> ...

On the other hand, forall is a dependent quantifier:

f :: forall x. ... -- x can be used here
f = ...

This means that the value taken by a dependent variable can affect the rest of the type. The type of (+) @Int is Int -> Int -> Int, whereas the type of (+) @Double is Double -> Double -> Double.

Let us conclude this subsection with a summary of the quantifiers available today and their attributes:

Quantifier Visible Erased Dependent
a -> ... ✔️
ctx => ...
forall a. ... ✔️ ✔️

New quantifiers of Dependent Haskell

You may notice that the quantifier table has quite a few missing rows. What about visible erased dependent quantification, or invisible retained dependent quantification, and so on?

The main focus of Dependent Haskell is adding the most powerful form of quantification that would be simultaneously retained and dependent. We shall call the new quantifier foreach. Visibility is not that important, so the plan is to offer both the visible and the invisible variation. And while we’re at it, we might as well throw visible erased dependent quantification into the mix.

Quantifier Visible Erased Dependent
forall a -> ... ✔️ ✔️ ✔️
foreach a. ... ✔️
foreach a -> ... ✔️ ✔️

The new quantifiers would provide a more principled replacement to some current practices, including Proxy, Typeable, TypeRep, Sing, and SingI. That is precisely what we are about to explore since Tezos Morley happens to make use of these definitions.

Specifically, we will perform the following (mostly mechanical) transformations:

Before After
forall a. Sing a -> b foreach a -> b
forall a. SingI a => b foreach a. b
forall a. Proxy a -> b forall a -> b

As a result, the code shall become more laconic and easier to maintain. We will no longer require the singletons package, which defines Sing and SingI, since we use all these new quantifiers instead of intricate machinery from singletons.

How dependent types can help industry

In this section, we discuss several examples of how one can simplify industrial code that makes use of advanced types by means of Dependent Haskell. Programmers already simulate dependent types (e.g., using singletons) in their projects for miscellaneous purposes. We show what such projects might look like if we can get rid of those simulacrums in favour of real dependent types.

Our case study is Morley, which is a part of Tezos.

Tezos is a blockchain system with a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm. Michelson is a functional smart contract language for the Tezos blockchain. It’s a stack-based language with strong typing, and it is inspired by such functional languages as ML and Scheme. There’s also a formal description of the Michelson operational semantics available at https://tezos.gitlab.io/alpha/michelson.

Morley is a set of tools for writing Michelson smart contracts. The word ‘Morley’ is a bit overloaded since it refers to the Haskell package, the smart contract language that extends Michelson, and the same-named framework. The package consists of the Morley interpreter implementation and the type checker.

Getting rid of singletons

singletons is a library that emulates dependent types in Haskell. You can learn more about it from its README and the paper that introduced the library: “Dependently Typed Programming with Singletons” by Richard Eisenberg and Stephanie Weirich.

We assume that constructions such as the Sing type family and the SingI class are already known to the reader. Otherwise, one may have a glance at the documentation.

Example 1: T and getWTP

Let us have a look at the data type T from morley:

data T =
    TKey
  | TUnit | TSignature | TChainId | TOption T | TList T | TSet T | TOperation
  | TContract T | TPair T T | TOr T T | TLambda T T | TMap T T | TBigMap T T
  | TInt | TNat | TString | TBytes | TMutez | TBool | TKeyHash | TBls12381Fr
  | TBls12381G1 | TBls12381G2 | TTimestamp | TAddress | TNever

This is a regular ADT that describes the types of Michelson values. If we wanted to verify that a type is well-formed, we could implement a predicate:

isWellFormed :: T -> Bool

However, using a mere Bool means we don’t have any evidence that validation succeeded. Instead, morley defines the getWTP of the following type:

getWTP :: forall (t :: T). (SingI t) => Either NotWellTyped (Dict (WellTyped t))

If the input type t :: T is well-formed, the function produces Right with the evidence. Otherwise, it fails and returns Left. Notably, the type of evidence WellTyped t refers to the value of t. That is why we had to employ the elaborate construction forall t. SingI t => instead of adding a simple function parameter T ->.

Quite a few complications arise from this. Firstly, we need to generate singletons for T:

$(let singPrefix, sPrefix :: Name -> Name
      singPrefix nm = mkName ("Sing" ++ nameBase nm)
      sPrefix nm = mkName ("S" ++ nameBase nm) in

  withOptions defaultOptions{singledDataConName = sPrefix, singledDataTypeName = singPrefix} $
  concat <$> sequence [genSingletons [''T], singDecideInstance ''T]

This snippet of Template Haskell generates SingT, which is the singleton type for T, and also SingI and SDecide instances:

data SingT t where
  STUnit :: SingT TUnit
  STSignature :: SingT TSignature
  ...
  STPair :: SingT t1 -> SingT t2 -> SingT (TPair t1 t2)
  ...
  -- and so on for each constructor of T.

Secondly, the implementation of getWTP now has to work with SingT values instead of plain T values.

Let’s have a look at one of the branches of getWTP that handles STPair:

getWTP :: forall t. (SingI t) => Either NotWellTyped (Dict (WellTyped t))
getWTP = case sing @t of
...
 STPair s1 s2 ->
    withSingI s1 $
    withSingI s2 $
    fromEDict (getWTP_ s1) $
    fromEDict (getWTP_ s2) $ Right DictgetWTP_ :: forall t. Sing t -> Either NotWellTyped (Dict (WellTyped t))
getWTP_ s = withSingI s $ getWTP @t

TPair is a constructor of T that corresponds to the Michelson tuple data type, and STPair a b is the corresponding singleton. This function has the SingI constraint, and here we pattern match on sing @t, where t is a type variable of kind T.

With Dependent Haskell, we are getting the foreach quantifier, which could be used to simplify all the above. The type of getWTP would become:

getWTP :: foreach (t :: T). Either NotWellTyped (Dict (WellTyped t))

And the implementation of getWTP could pattern match on regular T values rather than SingT:

getWTP @(TPair s1 s2) =
    fromEDict (getWTP @s1) $
    fromEDict (getWTP @s2) $ Right Dict

Moreover, we no longer need the getWTP_ helper function, which was used for recursive calls. Instead, we simply use a visibility override @.

Example 2: Peano and UpdateN

Here’s another example. In morley we need both term-level and type-level natural numbers to index the elements on the stack of the stack machine.

At the moment, we have the classic data type that defines natural numbers inductively à la Peano:

data Peano = Z | S Peano

And with the DataKinds language extension, we can use it at the type level, as we do in the type of instructions for the stack machine:

data Instr (inp :: [T]) (out :: [T]) whereUPDATEN
    :: forall (ix :: Peano) (val :: T) (pair :: T) (s :: [T]).
       ConstraintUpdateN ix pair
    => PeanoNatural ix
    -> Instr (val : pair : s) (UpdateN ix val pair ': s)
...

But in addition to the type-level variable ix :: Peano, we also need to mirror it at the term level to pattern match on it. That is the purpose of the PeanoNatural ix field.

Typically, one would use a singleton type for this purpose:

data SingNat (n :: Nat) where
  SZ :: SingNat 'Z
  SS :: !(SingNat n) -> SingNat ('S n)

But we take it one step further. There are plenty of situations when we need to convert this singleton value to a natural number represented as non-inductive Natural.

The straightforward solution is to utilise a conversion function like the following one:

toPeano :: SingNat n -> Natural
toPeano SZ = 0
toPeano (SS n) = 1 + (toPeano n)

Such a conversion is O(n)O(n) at runtime, and it would be inefficient to invoke it repeatedly. Instead of such a conversion, we define the PeanoNatural data type that caches the result of such conversion next to the singleton.

data PeanoNatural (n :: Peano) = PN !(SingNat n) !Natural

Of course, we don’t want to make an element of PeanoNatural from an arbitrary pair of SingNat n and Natural. We would like to have an invariant that might be formulated as PN s k :: PeanoNatural n iff k = toPeano s. We formalise this idea by introducing pattern synonyms Zero and Succ.

data MatchPS n where
  PS_Match :: PeanoNatural n -> MatchPS ('S n)
  PS_Mismatch :: MatchPS n

matchPS :: PeanoNatural n -> MatchPS n
matchPS (PN (SS m) k) = PS_Match (PN m (k - 1))
matchPS _ = PS_Mismatch

pattern Zero :: () => (n ~ 'Z) => PeanoNatural n
pattern Zero = PN SZ 0

pattern Succ :: () => (n ~ 'S m) => PeanoNatural m -> PeanoNatural n
pattern Succ s <- (matchPS -> PS_Match s) where
  Succ (PN n k) = PN (SS n) (k+1)
{-# COMPLETE Zero, Succ #-}

Those patterns cover all possible cases, but GHC can’t figure it out on its own, so we have to use the COMPLETE pragma to avoid the incomplete-patterns warnings.

With Dependent Haskell, we could rewrite PeanoNatural to avoid the use of singletons:

data PeanoNatural (n :: Peano) where
  PN :: foreach !(n :: Peano) -> !Natural -> PeanoNatural n

Interestingly, this reveals a need for strict foreach – a topic not previously discussed in the literature, so it’s worth investigating separately.

Back to the UPDATEN constructor of Instr:

  UPDATEN
    :: forall (ix :: Peano) (val :: T) (pair :: T) (s :: [T]).
       ConstraintUpdateN ix pair
    => PeanoNatural ix
    -> Instr (val : pair : s) (UpdateN ix val pair ': s)

UPDATEN is the instruction for the stack machine to update the n-th node of a given right-combed pair on top of the stack.

Here, UpdateN is a type-level list operation:

type family UpdateN (ix :: Peano) (val :: T) (pair :: T) :: T where
  UpdateN 'Z           val _                   = val
  UpdateN ('S 'Z)      val ('TPair _  right)   = 'TPair val right
  UpdateN ('S ('S n))  val ('TPair left right) = 'TPair left (UpdateN n val right)

In Dependent Haskell, we can redefine UpdateN as a term-level function:

updateN :: Peano -> T -> T -> T
updateN Z         val  _                 = val
updateN (S Z)     val (TPair _  right)   = TPair val right
updateN (S (S n)) val (TPair left right) = TPair left (updateN n val right)

Getting rid of Proxy

In Morley, we use phantom labels to identify arithmetic and other algebraic operations:

data Add           -- addition
data Sub           -- subtraction
data Mul           -- multiplication
data And           -- conjunction
data Or            -- disjunction
data Xor           -- exclusive disjunction        
...

Then to implement these operations, we have a class called ArithOp:

class (Typeable n, Typeable m) =>
      ArithOp aop (n :: T) (m :: T) where
  type ArithRes aop n m :: T
  evalOp
    :: proxy aop
    -> Value' instr n
    -> Value' instr m
    -> Either (ArithError (Value' instr n) (Value' instr m)) (Value' instr (ArithRes aop n m))

The aop type variable stands for one of the aforementioned operations. The n and m type variables stand for the input types of the operation, and a single operation can be overloaded to work on various inputs.

instance ArithOp 'Add TInt TInt   -- addition of Ints
instance ArithOp 'Add TNat TNat   -- addition of Nats
...

instance ArithOp 'And TBool TBool   -- logical `and`
instance ArithOp 'And TNat TNat     -- bitwise `and`

The ArithRes type family specifies the type of the result:

instance ArithOp 'Add TInt TInt where
  type ArithRes 'Add TInt TInt = TInt
  ...

-- offsetting a timestamp by a given number of seconds
instance ArithOp 'Add TInt TTimestamp where
  type ArithRes 'Add TInt TTimestamp = TTimestamp
  ...

Finally, we have the evalOp method which actually implements the operation at the term level:

instance ArithOp Or 'TNat 'TNat where
  type ArithRes Or 'TNat 'TNat = 'TNat
  evalOp _ (VNat i) (VNat j) = Right $ VNat (i .|. j)

You will notice that evalOp ignores its first argument, which is a proxy value. Its only role is to specify the operation at the use site.

let k = evalOp (Proxy :: Proxy Add) n m

The problem with Proxy is that it’s a value passed at runtime, so it incurs a certain amount of overhead. The optimiser can’t always get rid of it. Another problem is that constructing it at use sites introduces syntactic noise and makes the API less convenient. We would rather write evalOp Add than evalOp (Proxy :: Proxy Add).

What if we simply removed it? Like so:

class ... => ArithOp aop (n :: T) (m :: T) where
  ...
  evalOp   -- removed the (proxy aop ->) parameter
    :: Value' instr n
    -> Value' instr m
    -> Either (ArithError (Value' instr n) (Value' instr m))
              (Value' instr (ArithRes aop n m))

Then we would solve both problems: no input to pass at runtime, and at use sites we could simply write evalOp @Add. But the cost is that we’d introduce a new problem: the aop type variables would become ambiguous. That is permitted if the AllowAmbiguousTypes extension is enabled, but it leads to major deterioration of error messages if one forgets to specify the ambiguous type variable at the use site.

One of the quantifiers of Dependent Haskell offers a better solution. The visible forall a -> quantifier is mostly equivalent to a regular forall a., but the type variable must be always specified at use sites and is never ambiguous.

The type we want for evalOp is:

evalOp
    :: forall instr n m. forall aop ->
       ArithOp aop n m
    => Value' instr n
    -> Value' instr m
    -> Either (ArithError (Value' instr n) (Value' instr m))
              (Value' instr (ArithRes aop n m))

For variables we want the compiler to infer at use sites, we use the ordinary quantifier forall instr n m.; but for aop, which must be specified explicitly at the use site, we use forall aop ->.

We could apply the same trick to other functions which involve this variable. For example, in today’s Morley there’s a wrapper around evalOp that operates on values from the stack of the stack machine.

runArithOp
  :: (ArithOp aop n m, EvalM monad)
  => proxy aop
  -> StkEl n
  -> StkEl m
  -> monad (StkEl (ArithRes aop n m))
runArithOp op l r = case evalOp op (seValue l) (seValue r) of
  Left  err -> throwError (MichelsonArithError err)
  Right res -> pure $ starNotesStkEl res

With the visible forall, we would rewrite it as follows:

runArithOp
  :: forall aop ->
     (ArithOp aop n m, EvalM monad)
  => StkEl n
  -> StkEl m
  -> monad (StkEl (ArithRes aop n m))
runArithOp op l r = case evalOp op (seValue l) (seValue r) of
  Left  err -> throwError (MichelsonArithError err)
  Right res -> pure $ starNotesStkEl res

The runArithOp function evaluates arithmetic operations and either succeeds or fails. The first argument is proxy aop, which specifies the arithmetic operation itself. The function uses evalOp, a method of the type class ArithOp with the associated type ArithRes that represents the resulting type of operation.

This change cascades downstream to other functions that make use of runArithOp. For example, the runInstrImpl function has the following equation:

type InstrRunner m = forall inp out. Instr inp out -> Rec StkEl inp -> m (Rec StkEl out)

runInstrImpl :: EvalM m => InstrRunner m -> InstrRunner m
…
runInstrImpl _ OR (l :& r :& rest)     = (:& rest) <$> runArithOp (Proxy @Or) l r

Instead of Proxy @Or, we would simply write Or here:

runInstrImpl _ OR (l :& r :& rest)     = (:& rest) <$> runArithOp Or l r

Term-level functions instead of type families

Example 1: Drop and Take

In Dependent Haskell, we will be able to use functions at the type level. In particular, we can get rid of type families in favour of usual term-level functions.

For example, we may replace the following type families with the corresponding functions on lists:

type family Drop (n :: Peano) (s :: [k]) :: [k] where
  Drop  'Z s = s
  Drop ('S _) '[] = '[]
  Drop ('S n) (_ ': s) = Drop n s

type family Take (n :: Peano) (s :: [k]) :: [k] where
  Take  'Z _ = '[]
  Take _ '[] = '[]
  Take ('S n) (a ': s) = a ': Take n s

These type families are from morley as well. We replace Drop and Take with their usual term-level counterparts:

drop :: Peano -> [a] -> [a]
drop Z l = l
drop _ [] = []
drop (S n) (_ : s) = drop n s

take :: Peano -> [a] -> [a]
take Z _ = []
take _ [] = []
take (S n) (x : xs) = x : take n s

In addition to operations on lists, we use type families to enforce invariants:

type family IsLongerThan (l :: [k]) (a :: Peano) :: Bool where
  IsLongerThan (_ ': _) 'Z = 'True
  IsLongerThan (_ ': xs) ('S a) = IsLongerThan xs a
  IsLongerThan '[] _ = 'False

type LongerThan l a = IsLongerThan l a ~ 'True

The IsLongerThan is a binary predicate that is true iff the length of a list is greater than a given natural number.

One may reformulate this piece of code in Dependent Haskell as follows:

isLongerThan :: [a] -> Peano -> Bool
isLongerThan xs n = length xs > n

-- longerThan :: [a] -> Peano -> Constraint
longerThan l n = isLongerThan l n ~ True

Example 2: IsoValue and ToT

Now we have a look at the IsoValue type class. This type class defines a mapping from Haskell types to Michelson ones using an associate type:

class (WellTypedToT a) => IsoValue a where
  -- | Type function that converts a regular Haskell type into a @T@ type.
  type ToT a :: T
  type ToT a = GValueType (G.Rep a)

In Dependent Haskell, we can replace associated types with methods (assuming #267 to control visibility):

class (WellTypedToT a) => IsoValue a where
  toT a :: T

We can further translate type families that make use of ToT. For example, currently, we have ToTs that applies ToT to a list of types:

type family ToTs (ts :: [Type]) :: [T] where
  ToTs '[] = '[]
  ToTs (x ': xs) = ToT x ': ToTs xs

With DH, one could simply write map toT.

Example 3: DUPN

Now let us consider an example directly related to the Morley stack machine.

Recall that Instr is the data type that represents the stack machine instructions, such as UPDATEN or DUPN:

data Instr (inp :: [T]) (out :: [T]) where
...
  DUPN
    :: forall (n :: Peano) inp out a. (ConstraintDUPN n inp out a)
    => PeanoNatural n -> Instr inp out
...

As with UPDATEN discussed in an earlier section, we rewrite DUPN to use foreach instead of PeanoNatural:

data Instr (inp :: [T]) (out :: [T]) where
...
  DUPN
    :: foreach  (n :: Peano) 
    -> forall inp out a. (ConstraintDUPN n inp out a)
    => Instr inp out
...

We have already discussed this transformation, and now we are interested in something else: the ConstraintDUPN constraint.

type ConstraintDUPN n inp out a = ConstraintDUPN' T n inp out a

type ConstraintDUPN' kind (n :: Peano) (inp :: [kind]) (out :: [kind]) (a :: kind) =
  ( RequireLongerOrSameLength inp n
  , n > 'Z ~ 'True
  , inp ~ (Take (Decrement n) inp ++ (a ': Drop n inp))
  , out ~ (a ': inp)
  )

Let’s focus on this line in particular:

 inp ~ (Take (Decrement n) inp ++ (a ': Drop n inp))

There are four type families involved here: Take, Drop, Decrement, and ++. We already discussed Take and Drop.

Decrement is defined as follows:

type family Decrement (a :: Peano) :: Peano where
  Decrement 'Z = TypeError ('Text "Expected n > 0")
  Decrement ('S n) = n

Once again, in Dependent Haskell, we don’t need to replicate arithmetic operations at the type level as type families. So we replace the capital ‘D’ with the lowercase one in Decrement.

decrement :: Peano -> Peano
decrement Z = error "Expected n > 0"
decrement (S n) = n

The call to TypeError can be translated to the familiar term-level error. As to Take and Drop, we have demonstrated their translation above. As to ++, currently we use one from the vinyl library.

type family (as :: [k]) ++ (bs :: [k]) :: [k] where
  '[] ++ bs = bs
  (a ': as) ++ bs = a ': (as ++ bs)

In Dependent Haskell, we could use the term-level one from base. So, we redefine ConstraintDUPN' in the following way:

type ConstraintDUPN' kind (n :: Peano) (inp :: [kind]) (out :: [kind]) (a :: kind) =
  ( RequireLongerOrSameLength inp n
  , n > 'Z ~ 'True
  , inp ~ (take (decrement n) inp ++ (a ': drop n inp))
  , out ~ (a ': inp)
  )

Future of Dependent Haskell

We hope this article explains how these changes in the language will allow writing a more transparent Haskell code. In particular, these changes are of interest in those situations when we would like to guarantee safety at the type level.

Let us quickly discuss further steps for Dependent Haskell. At the time of writing, the proposal with design for dependent types has been recently accepted. That’s quite a remarkable achievement since this topic was rather controversial amongst the Haskell community. But we still have plenty to do to ‘materialise’ these enhancements that look fairly speculative since full-fledged dependent types in Haskell are not ready yet.

Right now, we are working on such issues as enabling visible foralls and binding type variables in functions. These are examples of issues the solution of which makes dependent types in Haskell a bit closer. However, introducing foreach quantifiers requires extensive research since we have only a design sketch at the moment.

How to participate?

The GHC developers community is always open for new enthusiasts, so some readers of this post might want to participate in Dependent Haskell development.

If so, you may have a look at ghc.dev. This page contains basic commands for building and debugging GHC. See also the GHC chapter by Simon Marlow and Simon Peyton Jones in ‘The Architecture of Open Source Applications’. We also recommend overviewing the GHC list of issues for newcomers.

Feel free to contact the authors – Vladislav Zavialov or Danya – on Twitter if any of this sounds interesting to you.

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